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homeprevnext Version
    $Date: 1996/04/05 19:17:05 $ $Revision: 1.22 $ 
homeprevnext Number
homeprevnext Dependencies
    EXT_abgr affects the definition of this extension 
    EXT_texture is required 
homeprevnext Overview
    This extension defines 3-dimensional texture mapping.  In order to 
    define a 3D texture image conveniently, this extension also defines the 
    in-memory formats for 3D images, and adds pixel storage modes to support 
    One important application of 3D textures is rendering volumes of image 
homeprevnext New Procedures and Functions
    void TexImage3DEXT(enum target, 
                       int level, 
                       enum internalformat, 
                       sizei width, 
                       sizei height, 
                       sizei depth, 
                       int border, 
                       enum format, 
                       enum type, 
                       const void* pixels); 
homeprevnext New Tokens
    Accepted by the <pname> parameter of GetBooleanv, GetIntegerv, 
    GetFloatv, and GetDoublev, and by the <pname> parameter of PixelStore: 
        PACK_SKIP_IMAGES_EXT             0x806B 
        PACK_IMAGE_HEIGHT_EXT            0x806C 
        UNPACK_SKIP_IMAGES_EXT           0x806D 
        UNPACK_IMAGE_HEIGHT_EXT          0x806E 
    Accepted by the <cap> parameter of Enable, Disable, and IsEnabled, by 
    the <pname> parameter of GetBooleanv, GetIntegerv, GetFloatv, and 
    GetDoublev, and by the <target> parameter of TexImage3DEXT, GetTexImage, 
    GetTexLevelParameteriv, GetTexLevelParameterfv, GetTexParameteriv, and 
        TEXTURE_3D_EXT                   0x806F 
    Accepted by the <target> parameter of TexImage3DEXT, 
    GetTexLevelParameteriv, and GetTexLevelParameterfv: 
        PROXY_TEXTURE_3D_EXT             0x8070 
    Accepted by the <pname> parameter of GetTexLevelParameteriv and 
        TEXTURE_DEPTH_EXT                0x8071 
    Accepted by the <pname> parameter of TexParameteriv, TexParameterfv, 
    GetTexParameteriv, and GetTexParameterfv: 
        TEXTURE_WRAP_R_EXT               0x8072 
    Accepted by the <pname> parameter of GetBooleanv, GetIntegerv, 
    GetFloatv, and GetDoublev: 
        MAX_3D_TEXTURE_SIZE_EXT          0x8073 
homeprevnext Additions to Chapter 2 of the GL Specification (OpenGL Operation)
homeprevnext Additions to Chapter 3 of the GL Specification (Rasterization)
    The pixel storage modes are augmented to support 3D image formats in 
    memory.  Table 3.1 is replaced with the table below: 
        Parameter Name          Type            Initial Value   Valid Range 
        --------------          ----            -------------   ----------- 
        UNPACK_SWAP_BYTES       boolean         FALSE           TRUE/FALSE 
        UNPACK_LSB_FIRST        boolean         FALSE           TRUE/FALSE 
        UNPACK_ROW_LENGTH       integer         0               [0, infinity] 
        UNPACK_SKIP_ROWS        integer         0               [0, infinity] 
        UNPACK_SKIP_PIXELS      integer         0               [0, infinity] 
        UNPACK_ALIGNMENT        integer         4               1, 2, 4, 8 
        UNPACK_IMAGE_HEIGHT_EXT integer         0               [0, infinity] 
        UNPACK_SKIP_IMAGES_EXT  integer         0               [0, infinity] 
        Table 3.1: PixelStore parameters pertaining to one or more of 
        DrawPixels, TexImage1D, TexImage2D, and TexImage3DEXT. 
    When TexImage3DEXT is called, the groups in memory are treated as being 
    arranged in a sequence of adjacent rectangles.  Each rectangle is a 
    2-dimensional image, whose size and organization are specified by the 
    <width> and <height> parameters to TexImage3DEXT.  The values of 
    UNPACK_ROW_LENGTH and UNPACK_ALIGNMENT control the row-to-row spacing in 
    these images in exactly the manner described in the GL Specification for 
    2-dimensional images.  If the value of UNPACK_IMAGE_HEIGHT_EXT is not 
    positive, then the number of rows in each 2-dimensional image is 
    <height>; otherwise the number of rows is UNPACK_IMAGE_HEIGHT_EXT.  Each 
    2-dimensional image comprises an integral number of rows, and is exactly 
    adjacent to its neighbor images. 
    The mechanism for selecting a sub-volume of a 3-dimensional image builds 
    on the mechanism for selecting a sub-rectangle of groups from a larger 
    containing rectangle.  If UNPACK_SKIP_IMAGES_EXT is positive, the 
    pointer is advanced by UNPACK_SKIP_IMAGES_EXT times the number of 
    elements in one 2-dimensional image.  Then <depth> 2-dimensional images 
    are processed, each having a subimage extracted in the manner described 
    in the GL Specification for 2-dimensional images. 
    The selected groups are processed as though they were part of a 
    2-dimensional image.  When the final R, G, B, and A components have been 
    computed for a group, they are assigned to components of a texel as 
    described by Table 3.6 in the EXT_texture extension.  Counting from 
    zero, each resulting Nth texel is assigned internal integer coordinates 
    [i,j,k], where 
        i = (N mod width) - border 
        j = ((N div width) mod height) - border 
        k = ((N div (width * height)) mod depth) - border 
    and the div operator performs integer division with truncation.  Thus 
    the last 2-dimensional image of the 3-dimensional image is indexed with 
    the highest value of k.  The dimensions of the 3-dimensional texture 
    image are <width> x <height> x <depth>.  Integer values that will 
    represent the base-2 logarithm of these dimensions are n, m, and l, 
    defined such that 
        width = 2**n + (2 * border) 
        height = 2**m + (2 * border) 
        depth = 2**l + (2 * border) 
    It is acceptable for an implementation to vary its allocation of 
    internal component resolution based any TexImage3DEXT parameter, but the 
    allocation must not be a function of any other factor, and cannot be 
    changed once it is established.  In particular, allocations must be 
    invariant -- the same allocation must be made each time a texture image 
    is specified with the same parameter values.  Provision is made for an 
    application to determine what component resolutions are available 
    without having to fully specify the texture (see below). 
    Texture Wrap Modes 
    The additional token value TEXTURE_WRAP_R_EXT is accepted by 
    TexParameteri, TexParameterv, TexParameteriv, and TexParameterfv, 
    causing table 3.7 to be replaced with the table below: 
        Name                            Type            Legal Values 
        ----                            ----            ------------ 
        TEXTURE_WRAP_S                  integer         CLAMP, REPEAT 
        TEXTURE_WRAP_T                  integer         CLAMP, REPEAT 
        TEXTURE_WRAP_R_EXT              integer         CLAMP, REPEAT 
        TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER              integer         NEAREST, LINEAR, 
        TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER              integer         NEAREST, LINEAR 
        TEXTURE_BORDER_COLOR            4 floats        any 4 values in [0,1] 
        Table 3.7: Texture parameters and their values. 
    If TEXTURE_WRAP_R_EXT is set to REPEAT, then the GL ignores the integer 
    part of R coordinates, using only the fractional part.  CLAMP causes R 
    to be clamped to the range [0, 1].  The initial state is for 
    Texture Minification 
    Continuous coordinates s, t, u, and v are defined in figure 3.10 of the 
    GL Specification.  To discuss 3-dimensional texture mapping, coordinates 
    r and w are defined similarly.  Coordinate w is equal to -border at the 
    "far" edge of the 3D image, understanding the image to be right-handed, 
    with k values increasing toward the viewer.  It has value depth+border 
    at the near edge of this volume.  Coordinate r has the same direction, 
    but is normalized so that it is 0.0 and 1.0 at the "far" and "near" 
    edges of a borderless volume.  If the volume has a border, the 0.0 and 
    1.0 mappings of r continue to bound the core image. 
    The formulas for p, used to determine the level of detail, are modified 
    by including dw/dx and dw/dy terms in the obvious ways.  Equation 3.7 
    sums (dw/dx)**2 into the left term, and (dw/dy)**2 into the right term. 
    Equation 3.8 has ((dw/dx * Dx + dw/dy * Dy)**2 added to the two terms 
    under the square root.  The requirements for the function f(x,y) become 
        1.  f(x, y) is continuous and monotonically increasing in each of 
            |du/dx|, |du/dy|, |dv/dx|, |dv/dy|, |dw/dx|, and |dw/dy|. 
        2.  Let 
                m_u = max(|du/dx|, |du/dy|) 
                m_v = max(|dv/dx|, |dv/dy|) 
                m_w = max(|dw/dx|, |dw/dy|) 
                max(m_u, m_v, m_w) <= f(x, y) <= m_u + m_v + m_w 
    The i and j coordinates of the texel selected for NEAREST filtering are 
    as defined in equations 3.9 and 3.10 of the GL Specification. 
    Coordinate k is computed as 
             /  floor(w),       r < 1 
        k = ( 
             \  2**l - 1,       r = 1 
    A 2x2x2 cube of texels is selected for LINEAR filtering.  The i and j 
    coordinates of these texels are computed as defined in the GL 
    Specification for 2-dimensional images.  The k coordinates are 
    computed as 
              / floor(w - 1/2) mod 2**l,        TEXTURE_WRAP_R_EXT is REPEAT 
        k0 = ( 
              \ floor(w - 1/2),                 TEXTURE_WRAP_R_EXT is CLAMP 
              / (k0 + 1) mod 2**l,      TEXTURE_WRAP_R_EXT is REPEAT 
        k1 = ( 
              \ k0 + 1,                 TEXTURE_WRAP_R_EXT is CLAMP 
        A = frac(u - 1/2) 
        B = frac(v - 1/2) 
        C = frac(w - 1/2) 
    where frac(x) denotes the fractional part of x.  Let T[i,j,k] be the 
    texel at location [i,j,k] in the texture image.  Then the texture value, 
    T, is found as 
        T = (1-A) * (1-B) * (1-C) * T[i0,j0,k0] + 
              A   * (1-B) * (1-C) * T[i1,j0,k0] + 
            (1-A) *   B   * (1-C) * T[i0,j1,k0] + 
              A   *   B   * (1-C) * T[i1,j1,k0] + 
            (1-A) * (1-B) *   C   * T[i0,j0,k1] + 
              A   * (1-B) *   C   * T[i1,j0,k1] + 
            (1-A) *   B   *   C   * T[i0,j1,k1] + 
              A   *   B   *   C   * T[i1,j1,k1] 
    for a 3-dimensional texture.  If any of the selected T[i,j,k] in the 
    above equation refer to a border texel with unspecified value, then the 
    border color given by the current setting of TEXTURE_BORDER_COLOR is 
    used instead of the unspecified value or values. 
    LINEAR_MIPMAP_NEAREST, and LINEAR_MIPMAP_LINEAR each require the use of 
    a mipmap.  A 3-dimensional mipmap is an ordered set of arrays 
    representing the same image; each array has a resolution lower than the 
    previous one.  If the texture, excluding is border, has dimensions 
    2**n x 2**m x 2**l, then there are exactly max(n, m, l) + 1 mipmap 
    arrays.  Each subsequent array has dimensions 
        size(i-1) x size(j-1) x size(k-1) 
    where the dimensions of the previous array are 
        size(i) x size(j) x size(k) 
                   /  2**x + 2*border,   x > 0 
        size(x) = ( 
                   \  1 + 2*border,      x <= 0 
    Each array in a 3-dimensional mipmap is transmitted to the GL using 
    TexImage3DEXT; the array being set is indicated with the <level> 
    parameter.  The rules for completeness of the set of arrays are as 
    described in the GL Specification, augmented in EXT_texture.  The rules 
    for mipmap array selection, and for filtering of the two selected 
    arrays, are also as described in the GL Specification.  Finally, the 
    rules for texture magnification are also exactly as described in the 
    GL Specification. 
    Texture Application 
    3-dimensional texture mapping is enabled and disabled using the generic 
    Enable and Disable commands, with <cap> specified as TEXTURE_3D_EXT.  If 
    either or both TEXTURE_1D or TEXTURE_2D are enabled at the same time as 
    TEXTURE_3D_EXT, the 3-dimensional texture is used. 
    Query support 
    The proxy texture PROXY_TEXTURE_3D_EXT can be used by applications to 
    query an implementations maximum configurations just as it can be for 
    1-dimensional and 2-dimensional textures. 
    Alternate sets of partial per-level texture state are defined for 
    the proxy texture PROXY_TEXTURE_3D_EXT.  Specifically, 
    maintained the the proxy texture.  When TexImage3DEXT is called 
    with <target> set to PROXY_TEXTURE_3D_EXT, these proxy state 
    values are always respecified, even if the texture is too large to 
    actually be used.  If the texture is too large, all of these state 
    variables are set to zero.  If the texture could be accommodated 
    by TexImage3DEXT called with <target> TEXTURE_3D_EXT, these values 
    are set as though TEXTURE_3D_EXT were being defined.  All of these 
    state value can be queried with GetTexLevelParameteriv with 
    <target> set to PROXY_TEXTURE_3D_EXT.  Calling TexImage3DEXT with 
    <target> PROXY_TEXTURE_3D_EXT has no effect on the actual 
    3-dimensional texture or its state. 
    There is no image associated with PROXY_TEXTURE_3D_EXT.  Therefore 
    PROXY_TEXTURE_3D_EXT cannot be used as a texture, and its image must 
    never be queried using GetTexImage.  (The error INVALID_ENUM results if 
    this is attempted.)  Likewise, there is no nonlevel-related state 
    associated with a proxy texture, so calling GetTexParameteriv or 
    GetTexParameterfv with <target> PROXY_TEXTURE_3D_EXT results in the 
    error INVALID_ENUM. 
homeprevnext Additions to Chapter 4 of the GL Specification (Per-Fragment Operations and the Framebuffer)
homeprevnext Additions to Chapter 5 of the GL Specification (Special Functions)
    TexImage3DEXT with a proxy target is not included in display 
    lists, but is instead executed immediately. 
homeprevnext Additions to Chapter 6 of the GL Specification (State and State Requests)
    3-dimensional texture images are queried using GetTexImage with its 
    <target> parameter set to TEXTURE_3D_EXT.  The assignment of texel 
    component values to the initial R, G, B, and A components of a pixel 
    group is described in EXT_texture.  Pixel transfer and pixel storage 
    operations are applied as if the image were 2-dimensional, except that 
    the additional pixel storage state values PACK_IMAGE_HEIGHT_EXT and 
    PACK_SKIP_IMAGES_EXT affect the storage of the image into memory.  The 
    correspondence of texels to memory locations is as defined for 
    TexImage3DEXT above, substituting PACK* state for UNPACK* state in all 
homeprevnext Additions to the GLX Specification
homeprevnext GLX Protocol
    A new GL rendering command is added. This command contains pixel data; 
    thus it is sent to the server either as part of a glXRender request 
    or as part of a glXRenderLarge request: 
            2           84+n+p          rendering command length 
            2           4114            rendering command opcode 
            1           BOOL            swap_bytes 
            1           BOOL            lsb_first 
            2                           unused 
            4           CARD32          row_length 
            4           CARD32          image_height 
            4           CARD32          image_depth 
            4           CARD32          skip_rows 
            4           CARD32          skip_images 
            4           CARD32          skip_volumes 
            4           CARD32          skip_pixels 
            4           CARD32          alignment 
            4           ENUM            target 
            4           INT32           level 
            4           ENUM            internalformat 
            4           INT32           width 
            4           INT32           height 
            4           INT32           depth 
            4           INT32           size4d 
            4           INT32           border 
            4           ENUM            format 
            4           ENUM            type 
            4           CARD32          null_image 
            n           LISTofBYTE      pixels 
            p                           unused, p=pad(n) 
            If the command is encoded in a glXRenderLarge request, the command  
            opcode and command length fields above are expanded to 4 bytes each: 
            4           88+n+p          rendering command length 
            4           4114            rendering command opcode 
        If <width> < 0, <height> < 0, <depth> < 0, <format> is invalid or <type> is  
        invalid, then the command is erroneous and n=0. 
        <pixels> is arranged as a sequence of adjacent rectangles. Each rectangle is a 
        2-dimensional image, whose structure is determined by the image height and the  
        parameters <swap_bytes>, <lsb_first>, <row_length>, <skip_rows>, <skip_pixels>,  
        <alignment>, <width>, <format>, and <type> given in the request. If <image_height> 
        is not positive then the number of rows (i.e., the image height) is <height>; 
        otherwise the number of rows is <image_height>. 
        <skip_images> allows a sub-volume of the 3-dimensional image to be selected. 
        If <skip_images> is positive, then the pointer is advanced by <skip_images>  
        times the number of elements in one 2-dimensional image. Then <depth>  
        2-dimensional images are read, each having a subimage extracted in the  
        manner described in Appendix A of the GLX Protocol Specification. 
homeprevnext Dependencies on EXT_abgr
    If EXT_abgr is supported, the <format> parameter of TexImage3DEXT 
    accepts ABGR_EXT.  Otherwise it does not. 
homeprevnext Dependencies on EXT_texture
    EXT_texture is required.  All of the <components> tokens defined by 
    EXT_texture are accepted by the <internalformat> parameter of 
    TexImage3DEXT, with the same semantics that are defined by EXT_texture. 
    The query and error extensions defined by EXT_texture are extended in 
    this document. 
homeprevnext Errors
    INVALID_ENUM is generated if <target> is not TEXTURE_3D_EXT or 
    INVALID_ENUM is generated if the <target> parameter to 
    GetTexParameteriv, GetTexParameterfv or GetTexImage is 
    INVALID_VALUE is generated if <level> is less than zero 
    INVALID_ENUM is generated if <internalformat> is not ALPHA, RGB, RGBA, 
    LUMINANCE, LUMINANCE_ALPHA, or one of the tokens defined by the 
    EXT_texture extension.  (Values 1, 2, 3, and 4 are not accepted as 
    internal formats by TexImage3DEXT). 
    INVALID_VALUE is generated if <width>, <height>, or <depth> is less than 
    zero, or cannot be represented as 2**k + 2*border for some integer k. 
    INVALID_VALUE is generated if <border> is not 0 or 1. 
    INVALID_ENUM is generated if <format> is not COLOR_INDEX, RED, GREEN, 
    EXT_abgr is supported). 
    INVALID_ENUM is generated if <type> is not UNSIGNED_BYTE, BYTE, 
    INVALID_OPERATION is generated if TexImage3DEXT is called between 
    execution of Begin and the corresponding execution of End. 
    TEXTURE_TOO_LARGE_EXT is generated if the texture as specified cannot be 
    accommodated by the implementation.  This error will not occur if none 
    of <width>, <height>, or <depth> is greater than MAX_3D_TEXTURE_SIZE_EXT. 
homeprevnext New State
    Get Value                           Get Command             Type                    Initial Value           Attribute 
    ---------                           -----------             ----                    -------------           --------- 
    UNPACK_SKIP_IMAGES_EXT              GetIntegerv             Z+                      0                           - 
    UNPACK_IMAGE_HEIGHT_EXT             GetIntegerv             Z+                      0                           - 
    PACK_SKIP_IMAGES_EXT                GetIntegerv             Z+                      0                           - 
    PACK_IMAGE_HEIGHT_EXT               GetIntegerv             Z+                      0                           - 
    TEXTURE_3D_EXT                      IsEnabled               B                       FALSE                   texture/enable 
    TEXTURE_WRAP_R_EXT                  GetTexParameteriv       1 x Z2                  REPEAT                  texture 
    TEXTURE_DEPTH_EXT                   GetTexLevelParameteriv  1 x 2 x levels x Z+     0                           - 
    (old state with new type information) 
    TEXTURE                             GetTexImage             3 x 1 x levels x I      null                        - 
    TEXTURE_RED_SIZE_EXT                GetTexLevelParameteriv  3 x 2 x levels x Z+     0                           - 
    TEXTURE_GREEN_SIZE_EXT              GetTexLevelParameteriv  3 x 2 x levels x Z+     0                           - 
    TEXTURE_BLUE_SIZE_EXT               GetTexLevelParameteriv  3 x 2 x levels x Z+     0                           - 
    TEXTURE_ALPHA_SIZE_EXT              GetTexLevelParameteriv  3 x 2 x levels x Z+     0                           - 
    TEXTURE_LUMINANCE_SIZE_EXT          GetTexLevelParameteriv  3 x 2 x levels x Z+     0                           - 
    TEXTURE_INTENSITY_SIZE_EXT          GetTexLevelParameteriv  3 x 2 x levels x Z+     0                           - 
    TEXTURE_WIDTH                       GetTexLevelParameteriv  3 x 2 x levels x Z+     0                           - 
    TEXTURE_HEIGHT                      GetTexLevelParameteriv  2 x 2 x levels x Z+     0                           - 
    TEXTURE_BORDER                      GetTexLevelParameteriv  3 x 2 x levels x Z+     0                           - 
    TEXTURE_COMPONENTS (1D and 2D)      GetTexLevelParameteriv  2 x 2 x levels x Z42    1                           - 
    TEXTURE_COMPONENTS (3D)             GetTexLevelParameteriv  1 x 2 x levels x Z38    LUMINANCE                   - 
    TEXTURE_BORDER_COLOR                GetTexParameteriv       3 x C                   0, 0, 0, 0              texture 
    TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER                  GetTexParameteriv       3 x Z6                  NEAREST_MIPMAP_LINEAR   texture 
    TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER                  GetTexParameteriv       3 x Z2                  LINEAR                  texture 
    TEXTURE_WRAP_S                      GetTexParameteriv       3 x Z2                  REPEAT                  texture 
    TEXTURE_WRAP_T                      GetTexParameteriv       2 x Z2                  REPEAT                  texture 
homeprevnext New Implementation Dependent State
    Get Value                           Get Command             Type            Minimum Value 
    ---------                           -----------             ----            ------------- 
    MAX_3D_TEXTURE_SIZE_EXT             GetIntegerv             Z+              16 
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